Order of the Red Star
The Order of the Red Star (This badge is part of my collection) was a military decoration of the Soviet Union. It was established by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 6 April 1930 but its statute was only defined in decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 5 May 1930. That statute was amended by decrees of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 7 May 1936, of 19 June 1943, of 26 February 1946, of 15 October 1947, of 16 December 1947 and by decree No 1803-X of 28 March 1980.
The Order of the Red Star was awarded to soldiers of the Soviet Army, Navy, border and internal security forces, employees of the State Security Committee of the USSR, as well as NCOs and officers of the bodies of internal affairs; to units, warships, associations, enterprises, institutions and organizations; as well as to military personnel of foreign countries:
– for personal courage and bravery in battle, for the excellent organization and leadership in combat that contributed to the success of Soviet troops;
– for successful operations of military units and formations which resulted in the enemy suffering considerable casualties or damage;
– for outstanding service in ensuring public safety and the security of the State Border of the USSR;
– for courage and valour displayed during the performance of military duties, or, in circumstances involving a risk to life;
– for exemplary performance of special command tasks and other outstanding deeds committed in peacetime;
– for great contribution in maintaining the high combat readiness of troops, excellent performance in combat and political training, in the mastery of new combat equipment and other services associated with strengthening the defensive might of the USSR;
– for merit in the development of military science and technologies used in training of the Armed Forces of the USSR;
– for merit in strengthening the defence capabilities of the socialist community.
The Order of the Red Star is worn on the right side of the chest and when in the presence of other orders of the USSR, placed immediately after the Order of the Patriotic War 2nd class. If worn in the presence of Orders or medals of the Russian Federation, the latter have precedence.
This order was established in 1930, simultaneously with the Order of Lenin, and became the second most important military award of the USSR. The author of the design of the order is the artist Kupriyanov V.K. and sculptor Golenetskiy V.V.
The Order of the Red Star is a five-pointed star covered in ruby red enamel. In the middle of the order there is a shield with the image of a Red Army man in an overcoat and a budenovka with a rifle in his hands. On the rim of the shield is the inscription “Workers of all countries, unite!”, At the bottom of the rim is the inscription “USSR”. Under the shield is an image of a sickle and a hammer.
The Order of the Red Star is made of silver. The silver content in the order is 27.162 ± 1.389 g (as of September 18, 1975). The total weight of the order is 33,250 ± 1,620 g.
The size of the order between the opposite peaks of the star is 47-50 mm (depending on the year of issue). The distance from the center of the order to the top of any of the five enamel rays of the star is 26-27 mm.
The otherwise plain reverse bore the maker’s mark and the award serial number. The Order was attached to clothing by a threaded stud and screw attachment. When the order wasn’t worn, a ribbon could be worn in its stead on the ribbon bar on the left side of the chest. The ribbon of the Order of the red Star was a 24mm wide silk moiré dark red with a 5mm wide central silver stripe.
The first awarded was Vasily Konstantinovich Blucher for skillfully repelling the blow of the Chinese army during the events on the Sino-Eastern Railway.
Among the first gentlemen of the Order of the Red Star was test pilot I.F. Kozlov He was awarded on May 20, 1932 for the successful landing of an experimental fighter I-12 (ANT-23), on which, as a result of tests, the aircraft gun was torn apart and damaged control systems.
In the 30s, the order was often awarded for merits not directly related to military clashes. For example, on July 7, 1933, the Order of the Red Star was awarded to Mandryka Pyotr Vasilyevich – head of the central hospital of the People’s Commissariat, “For outstanding services in organizing an exemplary setting up of a medical case in a central hospital and for outstanding work in the field of surgical treatment.”
In addition, there have been cases of awarding the Order of persons who are generally far from military affairs. So on March 22, 1935, the Head of the Main Department of the Gold Industry A.P. was awarded Serebrovsky, “for overfulfillment of the 1934 production program.”
The maximum number of awards of the Order of the Red Star of one person is six. Four such cavaliers are known to us, these are Onoprienko Filipp Petrovich, Panchenko Petr Petrovich, Silantyev Vasily Vasilyevich and Sittseva Nikolay Gavrilovich.
The latest award decree dates back to December 19, 1991. Cavaliers of the Order of the Red Star are: Permyakov Gennady Anatolyevich; Petrenko Alexander Pavlovich; Shamanov Vladimir Mikhailovich; Lyakh Vladimir Viktorovich for “for the courage and courage shown in the performance of military duty.”
On January 1, 1992, about 3876800 awards were awarded to the Order of the Red Star.